## Sunday, October 24, 2010

### Adriana Lima Career - References

Adriana Lima Career - References

# Internet Movie Database

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information related to movies, television shows, actors, production crew personnel, video games, and most recently, fictional characters featured in visual entertainment media. IMDb launched on October 17, 1990, and in 1998 was acquired by Amazon.com.
 1 History1.1 History before website 1.2 On the web 1.3 As an independent company 1.4 As a subsidiary company 2 TV episodes 3 Characters filmography 4 Instant viewing 5 Ancillary features5.1 User ratings of films5.1.1 Filters and weights 5.1.2 Ranking 5.1.3 Criticisms of IMDb ranking 5.2 Plot-related features and spoiler warnings 5.3 Message boards 6 Content and format6.1 Sources of data 6.2 Data provided by subjects 6.3 Copyright, vandalism, and error issues 6.4 Data format and access 6.5 Film titles 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

## History Of Adriana Lima

### History before website

The IMDb originated from two lists started as independent projects in early 1989 by participants in the Usenet newsgroup rec.arts.movies. In each case, a single maintainer recorded items emailed by newsgroup readers, and posted updated versions of his list from time to time. The founding ideas of the database began with a posting titled "Those Eyes", on the subject of actresses with beautiful eyes. Hank Driskill began to collect a list of attractive actresses and what movies they had appeared in, and as the size of the repeated posting grew far beyond a normal newsgroup article, it soon became known simply as "THE LIST". (The first code to manage this list was a Perl program written by Randal L. Schwartz to "invert the list", organizing the list by movies instead of actresses.)

The other project, started by Chuck Musciano, was briefly called the "Movie Ratings List" and soon became the "Movie Ratings Report". Musciano simply asked readers to rate movies on a scale of one to ten, and reported on the votes. He soon began posting "ballots" with lists of movies for people to rate, so his list also grew quickly.

In 1990, Col Needham collated the two lists and produced a "Combined LIST & Movie Ratings Report". (His first posting of the database scripts is not available.) Needham soon started a (male) "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST, which would later be renamed the "Actress List". Both this and the Actors List had been restricted to people who were still alive and working, but retired people began to be added, and Needham also started what was then (but did not remain) a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". The goal now was to make the lists as inclusive as the maintainers could manage. In late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series. On October 17, 1990, Needham posted a collection of Unixshell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, and the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database".

### On the web Adriana Lima

By 1992, the database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material, as well as trivia, biographies, and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data; and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. Later in the year, it moved onto the World Wide Web (a network in its infancy back then) under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database. The database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in the UK. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, meaning that people no longer had to email the specific list maintainer with their updates. However, the structure remained that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Its management also continued to be in the hands of a small contingent of underpaid or volunteer "section managers" who were receiving ever-growing quantities of information on films from around the world and across time from contributors of widely varying levels of expertise and informational resources. Despite the annual claims of Needham, in a year-end report newsletter to the Top 50 contributors, that "fewer holes" must now remain for the coming year, the amount of information still missing from the database was vastly underestimated. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth.
On September 30, 2010, IMDB launched original video in celebration of its 20th anniversary.
The website is Perl-based.

### As an independent company Of Adriana Lima

In 1995, it became obvious to the principal site managers that the project had become too large to maintain merely through donations and spare-time efforts. The decision was made to become a commercial venture. In 1996, IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. Col Needham became the primary owner as well as the identified figurehead. The section managers were offered "shares" in the company in exchange for the amount of work-time they put in, and sometimes also for their monetary donations. A couple of these went to work full time for salary. (Needham had already been drawing one.) General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising, licensing and partnerships.
This state of affairs continued until 1998. The database was growing every day. It was again reaching a critical point in terms of quantity of new data received versus number of personnel available. There was an urgent need for more full-time managers, who would of course want to be paid. Most revenues were being spent on equipment. The system was also suffering noticeable slowdowns both in accessing the site and in having new data posted. One day in November 1997, out of the blue, Alan Jay received a call from Jeff Bezos asking for him and Needham to meet in London the following week. After a full day meeting in London and a subsequent three day meeting in Seattle a deal was tabled which met the shareholders goals of maintaining the IMDb as a free resource for the internet community. None of this activity was made known to the several hundred volunteers who were contributing the vast majority of information now coming in to IMDb. The deal was closed 3 months later.

### Of Adriana Lima Of Adriana Lima

In 1998, Jeff Bezos, founder, owner and CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Col Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company.[6] This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use the IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. Volunteer contributors were not advised in advance of even the possibility of IMDb—and their contributions along with it—being sold to a private business, which created some initial discord and defection of regulars.

IMDb continued to expand its functionality. In 2002 it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro aimed at entertainment professionals. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory. Most information contained in the IMDb database proper continues to come from volunteer researchers.

As an additional incentive for users, as of 2003, if users are identified as being one of "the top 100 contributors" in terms of amounts of hard data submitted, they receive complimentary free access to IMDbPro for the following calendar year; for 2006 this was increased to the top 150 contributors, and for 2007 to the top 175. This incentive however is for overall contribution—not contribution on a nation by nation basis.[7][not in citation given] In 2008 IMDb launched their first official foreign language version with the German IMDb.de. Additionally in 2008 IMDb acquired two other companies. Withoutabox and Box Office Mojo.

## TV episodes

On January 26, 2006, "Full Episode Support" came online, allowing the database to support separate cast and crew listings for each episode of every TV series. This was described by Col Needham as "the largest change we've ever made to our data model", and increased the number of titles in the database from 485,000 to nearly 755,000.
At present, the database entries for TV series are in a state of flux, as listings are migrated from series titles to individual episodes. The maintainers anticipated "a couple of months for data to settle down and bugs to be ironed out", but inaccuracies were still present one year later.

## Characters filmography

On October 2, 2007 the characters filmography feature was launched. The feature is similar to the existing title, name and company feature, except now users can see by whom a certain character was played and can read a biography about the character and memorable quotes from them. All data in the characters filmography is submitted by regular users and is largely not verified by the IMDb staff, in contrast to most other data submitted to the site, which is first verified and might be rejected by the staff. This lack of oversight is acceptable, however, because very little new data is sent in; the majority of submissions consist of existing data being connected together.

## Instant viewing

### Of Adriana Lima

On September 15, 2008, a feature was added that enables instant viewing of over 6,000 movies and television shows from CBS, Sony and a number of independent film makers, with direct links from their profiles. Due to licensing restrictions this feature is only available to viewers in the United States.

## Ancillary features Of Adriana Lima

### User ratings of films Of Adriana Lima

IMDb top 250 films, plotted by year and the sum of the ratings for movies from that year.
As one adjunct to data, the IMDb offers a rating scale that allows users to rate films by choosing one of ten categories in the range 1–10, with each user able to submit one rating. The points of reference given to users of these categories are the descriptions "1 (awful)" and "10 (excellent)"; and these are the only descriptions of categories. Due to the minimum category being scored one, the mid-point of the range of scores is 5.5, rather than 5.0 as might intuitively be expected given a maximum score of ten. This rating system has since been implemented for television programming on an episode-by-episode basis.
In adopting this method, IMDb is following its widespread usage; the method is the same as rating in the range of a half star to five stars. The simplicity of this method makes it popular, but in terms of psychometric, statistical and other criteria, the method suffers shortcomings.

### Of Adriana Lima

IMDb indicates that submitted ratings are filtered and weighted in various ways in order to produce a weighted mean that is displayed for each film, series, and so on. It states that filters are used to avoid ballot stuffing; the method is not described in detail to avoid attempts to circumvent it. In fact, it sometimes produces an extreme difference between the weighted average and the arithmetic mean. For example, Jonas Brothers: The 3D Concert Experience is considered to be the worst film with a weighted average of 1.3 as of March 2009, but has a rather ordinary arithmetic mean of 4.1.

#### Ranking Of Adriana Lima

The IMDb Top 250 is intended to be a listing of the top 'rated' 250 films, based on ratings by the registered users of the website using the methods described. Only non-documentary theatrical releases running at least forty-five minutes with over 3000 ratings are considered; all other products are ineligible. Also, the 'top 250' rating is based on only the ratings of "regular voters". The exact number of votes a registered user would have to make to be considered to be a user who votes regularly has been kept secret. IMDb has stated that to maintain the effectiveness of the top 250 list they "deliberately do not disclose the criteria used for a person to be counted as a regular voter". In addition to other weightings, the top 250 films are also based on a weighted rating formula referred to in actuarial science as a credibility formula. This label arises because a statistic is taken to be more credible the greater the number of individual pieces of information; in this case from eligible users who submit ratings. IMDb uses the following formula to calculate the weighted rating:

$W = \frac{Rv + Cm}{v+m}$
where:
$W\$ = Weighted Rating
$R\$ = average for the movie as a number from 0 to 10 (mean) = (Rating)
$v\$ = number of votes for the movie = (votes)
$m\$ = minimum votes required to be listed in the Top 250 (currently 3000)
$C\$ = the mean vote across the whole report (currently 6.9)
An extended listing of the Top 500 – following the same formula – is available to IMDbPro subscribers.
The IMDb also has a Bottom 100 feature which is assembled through a similar process although only 1500 votes must be received to qualify for the list.
The top 250 list comprises a wide range of films, including major releases, cult films, independent films, critically acclaimed films, silent films and non-English language films.

#### Criticisms of IMDb ranking Of Adriana Lima he validity of the Top 250 has come under scrutiny. The skepticism includes accusations of ballot-box stuffing or voting ambiguity.

Soon after its release, WALL-E garnered high ratings from users, eventually pushing it to #6 on the list. Soon afterwards, WALL-E's message board became filled with posts from users urging others to vote it a "1", after which its rating dropped significantly.

Other skepticism has revolved around The Godfather. While many of the top films on IMDb have less than 4% of their total votes at "1", The Godfather has maintained a significantly higher percentage, coming in at 6.2% averaged over the last 5 years.

Some other general criticism of the ranking system is that it serves as a "popularity contest." The voting pattern of certain movies such as Up, WALL-E and other recent hit movies has caused some to suggest that fans are not voting objectively on films.  Some films see a spike in "10" votes around the time the movie is first released, and then as time passes, these films' ratings decrease. For instance, Up found its way to the #18 spot on IMDb's list shortly after it was released, but as of August 18, 2010, it has fallen to the #85 spot.

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